Brüning (1931) and Papandreou (2011)

Here is Germany Prime Minister Brüning in 1931.

Here is Greek Prime Minister Papandreou in 2011.

Brüning fled Germany in 1934 after the Nazi takeover in 1933.

80 years on – here we go again…

The year is 1931. US president Hoover on June 20 announces the so-called Hoover Moratorium. Hoover’s proposition was to put a one-year moratorium on payments of World War I and other war debt, postponing the initial payments, as well as interest. This obvious is especially a relief to Germany and Austria. The proposal outrages a lot of people and especially the France government is highly upset by the proposal.

July 23, 1931. After finally gaining French support, President Hoover announced that all of the important creditor governments had accepted the intergovernmental debt moratorium. While the U.S. government rejected the notion that inter-Allied war debts and reparations were connected, the European governments adopted the stand that Allied debts and reparations would stand or fall together. The delay in action on the debt moratorium contributed to the closing of all German banks by mid-July. (From youtube)

Here are the historical pictures from the Paris conference in 1931.

80 years on – now we are again talking about European debts. This time things a different now it is now Germany who are in need of a debt moratorium, but Greece. And guess who is upset this time around??

Bennett McCallum – grandfather of Market Monetarism

Scott Sumner in a blog post today calls Bennett McCallum “the most respected NGDP advocate in the entire world”. I completely agree with Scott. McCallum’s work on “Nominal Income Targeting” (maybe out of respect for McCallum we should really call it that…) is second to none and everybody interested in the topic should read all of his work (I am getting there…). I am particularly impressed with Dr. McCallum’s work on Nominal Income Targeting in Small Open economies.

If I have time I one day hope to write an overview article of McCallum’s work…Until then take a look at McCallum’s recent paper on “Nominal GDP Targeting”.

See especially McCallum’s discussion about “level” versus “growth” targeting:

“From the foregoing it can be seen that one issue that arises in discussions of nominal GDP targeting is whether the targets should be expressed in terms of “level” or “growth-rate” measures. For an example of the distinction, suppose that the chosen rate of growth of nominal GDP is 4.5% per year. Suppose that in some year, however, the central bank misses that target by a full percentage point on the high side, yielding 5.5% growth consisting of (for example) 3.0 percent inflation and 2.5% real growth. Should the central bank strive for the usual 4.5% growth in nominal GDP again in the following year? Or should it decrease its growth target to 4.0%, aiming thereby to be back at the original path for the nominal GDP level at the end of the next year? In other words, should the nominal GDP targets be set in terms of growth rates or growing levels? In the latter case, the disadvantage will be that policy that decreases nominal growth below its usual target value may be excessively restrictive, whereas the former case leaves open the possibility of cumulative misses in the same direction for a number of periods, i.e., it permits “base drift” away from the intended path. My position on this issue has been that keeping with the target growth rates will, if they are on average equal to the correct value over time, be unlikely to permit much departure from the planned path and so should probably be preferred. This is not at all a universal point of view, however, among nominal GDP supporters.”

It is also interesting that McCallum in his paper acknowledges the work of the blogging Market Monetarists – particularly Scott Sumner – and hopefully the interaction between the Market Monetarists and McCallum will develop in the future.

If Scott Sumner is the father of Market Monetarism then Bennett McCallum is the grandfather – even though some of us might disagree with McCallum’s position in the level vs growth debate.


Update: Steve Walman at Interfluidity has a post on “The moral case for NGDP targeting”.

Update 2: David Beckworth suggests that Bennett McCallum is the godfather of Nominal Income Targeting. I can accept that…even though grandfather seems a bit more friendly;-)

Update 3: Scott Sumner also has an comment on McCallum’s paper. And here is a comment from Marcus Nunes as well.

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